Ex vivo anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics for periodontal health
Tim Schmitter 1 , Bernd L Fiebich 2 , Joerg T Fischer 1 , Max Gajfulin 1 , Niklas Larsson 3 , Thorsten Rose 2 , Marcus R Goetz 1
PMID: 30057719 PMCID: PMC6060379 DOI: 10.1080/20002297.2018.1502027
Background: Probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties have the potential to be of therapeutic benefit in gingivitis.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of potential probiotic strains on inflammatory mediators involved in early gingivitis using an ex vivo inflammation model.
Methods: Strains were screened in viable and attenuated forms for effects on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of interleukins (IL)-1β, -6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane from human primary monocytes, and then, if anti-inflammatory effects were shown, on IL-1β-stimulated release of inflammatory mediators from primary gingival fibroblasts. Lead strains were evaluated for optimal dosing, batch-to-batch variation and functional consistency in toothpaste.
Results: Twenty-one of 73 strains showed anti-inflammatory effects in monocytes; of which, seven showed effects in both viable and attenuated forms. Seven of 14 strains showed effects in fibroblasts. Strains Lactobacillus paracasei LPc-G110(SYBIO-15) and Lactobacillus plantarum GOS42(SYBIO-41) induced statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in the release of multiple inflammatory mediators from monocytes, which were consistent across batches. Viable L. paracasei LPc-G110 tooth paste significantly reduced IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E2 release from monocytes versus placebo.
Conclusion: Strains L. paracasei LPc-G110 and L. plantarum GOS42 have potential for use as probiotics in oral care products to reduce gingival inflammation.
Keywords: Gingivitis; bacteria; biofilms; dental plaque; inflammation; oral hygiene; probiotics.